Following are the National Plants of India:
National tree of India: Banyan Tree
Scientific name: Ficus Benghalensis
"To study a Banyan tree, you not only must know its main stem in its soil but also trace the growth of its greatness in the further soil. For then you can know the true nature of its vitality." – Rabindranath Tagore
Banyan is a huge tree (20 m tall) with an enormous crown of foliage occupying a large area; many aerial roots originating from branches reach the ground giving the impression of several trees planted side by side & jointed at the top. A large number of birds are attracted during the fruiting season.
The tree is suited for planting in a large park as a specimen plant, or along national highways for cool shade. The plant is propagated by planting woody stem cuttings during the rainy season.
Interesting fact: One of the largest specimens, the Great Banyan is found in Kolkata. It is more than 250 years old. The area occupied by this single tree is about 4 acres.
National flower of India: Lotus
"One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water." – Bhagavad-Gita
Lotus flowers are pink, tipped rose or white, 30 cm across & overtopping with floating leaves. The flowering spectacle happens during the summer. Propagation of lotus plant is by cutting of rhizomatous stems(bulbs), or the runners. It can be grown by germinating seeds in seed-pans. Newly propagated plants should not be planted in the deep water.
Interesting fact: Lotus seeds have the ability to remain viable for over thousand years. In 1994, a seed from a divine lotus, dated 1,300 years back was successfully germinated.
National fruit of India: Mango
Scientific name: Mangifera indica
"Wisdom is in yourself, just like sweet ripe mango is already in a young green one." –Ajahn Chah
Mango is the most significant fruit in India having socio-economic significance. It is known as the king of fruits owing to the delicious quality of fruit rich in vitamins and minerals. Ancient Indian valued mango not only for its sentiment or religious consideration, but they realised its importance in the economic and cultural life of the society. There are more than 100 known varieties of mango in India.
Interesting fact: In the sixteenth century, The Mughal emperor Akbar is said to have planted a mango orchard having 100,000 trees in Darbhanga, Eastern India. Read more about how to develop fruit tree orchard.
Click here to read more about growing mango tree.
Happy Independence Day!